By Cem Eroğul
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It follows that in elass-divided societies, the second funetion of politics, aiming at the maintenance and expansion of the relations of produetion, is necessarily in the service of the superior elasses, and opposed to the inferior ones. ' Whereas in the first funetion of politics strife was against nature, in the second one it is among individuals belonging to opposing elasses. With the appearance of elass differentiation, politics acquires a new task, that of preserving and promoting precisely this differentiation.
Finally, the level of development of state means may indicate the prevalent mode of produetion, the nature of the dominant class, and consequently, the particular type of state that faces us. The style of the state, and its particular manner of exercising power, depends on a series of factors. The first one is again the level of development of the forces of produetion. The style will necessarily be affected by the degree of refinement of state means which themselves reflect the relative progress achieved by society's productive capacity.
This objective situation is so binding that it is indeed the source of another majör political function, which I propose to cali the 'third function'. This last function of politics is the produet of a social situation where political activity becomes the particular task of a special group of persons permanently organized in an apparatus encompassing the whole of society. This apparatus, the state, has to enjoy power in order to be able to carry out its political tasks. Thus, with the emergence of the state, ali activities aiming at the preservation and expansion of state power become a permanent feature of political activity.
An Essay on the Nature of the State by Cem Eroğul