By John J. McCarthy
This booklet describes Optimality idea from the pinnacle down, explaining and exploring the relevant premises of OT and the implications that stick with from them. Examples are drawn from phonology, morphology, and syntax, however the emphasis all through is at the thought instead of the examples, on figuring out what's distinct approximately OT and on equipping readers to use it, expand it, and critique it of their personal parts of curiosity. The book's insurance extends to paintings on first- and second-language acquisition, phonetics and sensible phonology, computational linguistics, ancient linguistics, and sociolinguistics. Chapters finish with large feedback for additional interpreting, categorized by means of subject, and are supplemented via an immense bibliography (over 800 items).
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C), the two are “close to equivalent”, the past perfect being better characterized in (63). 2 Predicates of knowledge and acquisition of knowledge The most common complement-taking predicates here are ‘know’, ‘find out’ and ‘forget’. pst siad] 3pl Note here that the past form of the complementizer in (67), go becomes gur before regular past tense forms. 2 above. vn ‘I know that Siôn saw the game’ (Borsley et al. pst-3sg Siôn Siôn nhw 3pl y art ’n pred hwyr] late gêm] game As Borsley et al. say of the use of the inflected past in complements (69): “some speakers do permit this, but in a number of spoken varieties, as well as in literary Welsh, the past tense is ungrammatical” (Borsley et al.
20 Peter McQuillan Table 2: Complementizer forms when directly followed by non-verbal element (focus) IRISH TYPE 1 IRISH TYPE 2 AFFIRMATIVE Non-past Past gur/gurb gur/gurbh NEGATIVE Non-past Past nach nár/nárbh WELSH TYPE 1 AFFIRMATIVE Non-Past Past ar/arb ar/arbh WELSH TYPE 2 AFFIRMATIVE mai NEGATIVE nad AFFIRMATIVE ai 2 The Celtic languages The modern Celtic languages comprise two subgroups: a Gaelic or Goidelic branch consisting of the Irish, Scottish and Manx (Isle of Man) varieties and a British or Brittonic grouping composed of Welsh, Cornish and Breton.
That this control is higher in the case of (23) can be shown syntactically. m ‘If his wife were there, he would like it’ Thus the go-clause is more semantically and syntactically integrated with its governing clause (it must be extraposed), while the dá-clause syntactically behaves more like an adjunct clause, in a freer relationship with the main clause, a condition clause in effect. Nonetheless, the dá-clause passes a syntactic test for a complement, as it counts as a subject argument of the main predicate, it fills the same argument slot.
A thematic guide to optimality theory by John J. McCarthy