By J. 't Hart, R. Collier, A. Cohen
This ebook provides an experimental-phonetic method of the examine of intonation, outlined because the ensemble of pitch diversifications in speech. It supplies an in depth explication of the research of intonation by way of the stylization procedure: learning the perceptual outcomes of planned simplifications of speech melody makes it attainable to offer an outline by way of perceptually appropriate, discrete occasions. Theoretical insights and the acoustic, perceptual, and physiological experimental facts that helps them are amply mentioned. Phoneticians and speech scientists will locate the cutting edge, specified good points of this publication of curiosity.
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Extra resources for A Perceptual Study of Intonation: An Experimental-Phonetic Approach to Speech Melody
Indeed, higher Ps values primarily increase the amplitude of vocal-cord vibration, not its frequency. The effect on frequency 13 Phonetic aspects of intonation may be explained by considering that the higher P s forces the vocal cords wider apart and deforms them. This greater deformation leads to a greater mechanical stiffness, which in turn causes a higher F o , since the stiffened cords bounce back faster. Furthermore, a higher P s produces a larger amount of air flow through the glottis and intensifies the Bernoulli effect by which the cords are snapped together at the end of the closing phase of their vibratory cycle.
Such a contraction would, in principle, counteract the elongation caused by the activity of the cricothyroid and reduce the extrinsic tension of the vocal cords. However, if the distance between the points of attachment of the cords is kept constant, the isometric contraction of the vocalis muscle will effectively increase the intrinsic tension of the vocal cords. Understandably, the rate of vibration of the vocal cords will be lowered whenever their intrinsic or extrinsic tension decreases. Following a rise in frequency, the tension is primarily reduced by the relaxation of the cricothyroid and vocalis muscles.
Therefore one usually observes major Fo drops in the vicinity of obstruents. Such modulations of the Fo curve may be termed 'microintonation' (House and Fairbanks, 1953; Lehiste and Peterson, 1961; Di Cristo and Chafcouloff, 1977; Di Cristo and Hirst, 1986; Silverman, 1986). Evidently, such perturbations, not intended by the speaker, cannot be considered as constituents of the pitch contour as a linguistic entity; but they make the interpretation of Fo curves in terms of underlying intonation patterns all the more difficult.
A Perceptual Study of Intonation: An Experimental-Phonetic Approach to Speech Melody by J. 't Hart, R. Collier, A. Cohen