Read e-book online A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition PDF

By John M. Last

ISBN-10: 0195141687

ISBN-13: 9780195141689

ISBN-10: 0195141695

ISBN-13: 9780195141696

Dictionary making by no means ends simply because languages are constantly altering. regular in the course of the international, this publication will proceed to function the traditional English-language dictionary of epidemiology in its Fourth version. It covers all of the universal phrases utilized in epidemiology and plenty of from comparable fields corresponding to biostatistics, infectious ailment regulate, future health merchandising, genetics, medical epidemiology, wellbeing and fitness economics, and scientific ethics. The definitions are transparent and concise, yet there's area for a few short essays and discussions of the provenance of vital phrases. backed via the overseas Epidemiological organization, the dictionary represents the consensus of epidemiologists in lots of diversified nations. the entire definitions have been reviewed again and again through a global community of members from each significant department of epidemiology. they're authoritative with no being authoritarian. The Fourth version includes good over a hundred and fifty new entries and big revisions of in regards to the similar variety of definitions, plus a dozen new illustrations. a few of the new phrases relate to tools utilized in environmental and scientific epidemiology.

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BENEFIT Advantage or improvement resulting from an intervention. BENEFIT-COST RATIO The ratio of net present value of measurable benefits to costs. Calculation of a benefit-cost ratio is used to determine the economic feasibility or success of a program. 1 This occurs when the combination of exposure and disease under study increases the risk of admission to hospital, leading to a systematically higher exposure rate among the hospital cases than the hospital controls; this, in turn, systematically distorts the odds ratio.

BIAS OF INTERPRETATION Error arising from inference and speculation. Sources of the error include (1) failure of the investigator to consider every interpretation consistent with the facts and to assess the credentials of each and (2) mishandling of cases that constitute exceptions to some general conclusion. BILLS OF MORTALITY Weekly and annual abstracts of christenings and burials compiled from parish registers in England, especially London, that date from 1538. Beginning in 1629, the annual bills were published and included a tabulation of deaths from plague and other causes.

7 association, indirect ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE A branch of computer science in which attempts are made to duplicate human intellectual functions. One application is in diagnosis, in which computer programs are based upon epidemiologic analyses of data in hospital charts or other clinical records. , family and household composition, occurrence of cases of specific diseases; the latter is also known as case finding. ASCERTAINMENT BIAS Systematic failure to represent equally all classes of cases or persons supposed to be represented in a sample.

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A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition by John M. Last


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